Optical Guided-wave Chemical and Biosensors I by Kim E. Sapsford (auth.), Mohammed Zourob, Akhlesh Lakhtakia

By Kim E. Sapsford (auth.), Mohammed Zourob, Akhlesh Lakhtakia (eds.)

For the 1st time, unusual scientists from key associations around the world supply a entire method of optical sensing concepts making use of the phenomenon of guided wave propagation for chemical and biosensors. This contains either state-of the-art basics and cutting edge purposes of those ideas. The authors current a deep research in their specific matters in the way to deal with the wishes of beginner researchers resembling graduate scholars and post-doctoral students in addition to of demonstrated researchers looking new avenues. Researchers and practitioners who desire a reliable starting place or reference will locate this paintings invaluable.

This first of 2 volumes includes 8 chapters masking planar waveguides for sensing, in addition to sensing concepts in accordance with plasmonic waveguides.

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For the 1st time, wonderful scientists from key associations around the globe supply a accomplished method of optical sensing innovations making use of the phenomenon of guided wave propagation for chemical and biosensors. This contains either state-of the-art basics and leading edge purposes of those strategies.

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From the mode equation and equation (38), the waveguide sensitivity for both cover refractive index and the surface adlayer changes can be derived (three-layer planar waveguide). The derivation is given in detail in [7] and here only the results are given: @neff ¼ @nc  nc neff #r  2  "  2 Dzc=s nw À n2eff neff À1 2 n2w À n2c deff nc (39) for cover refractive index changes, and @neff @tad 2  3r    2  2  neff 2 þ neff 2 À 1 2 2 nad nw À neff nad À nc 6 nc 7 ¼ 4 2  2 5 n2w À n2c n2eff deff neff neff þ nw À 1 nc (40) for surface adlayer changes, where Dzc/s are the penetration depths of the evanescent field into cover (c) and substrate (s), respectively, nad denotes the refractive index of the surface adlayer, r ¼ 0 for TE modes and r ¼ 1 for TM modes, and deff ¼ d þ Dzc þ Dzs (41) defines the effective thickness of waveguide.

49 9 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Abbreviations CCD DNA MZI RNA Charge coupled device Deoxyribonucleic acid Mach-Zehnder-Interferometer Ribonucleic acid Symbols c d deff ~ D ~ E ~ H i k L m n na nad neff n w , n c, n s P Pin Pout tad TE TM Dz a bm DG e Speed of light in vacuum Thickness, diameter, distance Effective thickness of the waveguide Electric displacement Electric field Magnetic field Imaginary unit Wave vector Interaction length Mode number Refractive index Refractive index of the ambient medium Refractive index of the surface adlayer Effective refractive index of the waveguide Refractive index of waveguide, cover and substrate Light intensity Input power Output power Thickness of the surface adlayer Transverse electric Transverse magnetic Penetration depth Coupling angle Propagation constant of the mode m Mass coverage Permittivity High-Refractive-Index Waveguide Platforms for Chemical and Biosensing ’cr Dj k l l0 L m tr o 23 Critical angle Phase shift Diffraction order Wavelength Wavelength in vacuum Grating period Permeability Phase shift upon reflection Angular frequency 1 Introduction Nowadays, chemical sensors and biosensors play a crucial part in everyday life.

2 Interferometric Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Evanescent Field Fluorescence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 24 25 28 34 34 35 36 37 40 45 K. Schmitt Fraunhofer Institute for Physical Measurement Techniques, Heidenhofstr. 8, 79110 Freiburg, Germany C. de M. Zourob and A. 1007/978-3-540-88242-8_2, # Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2010 21 22 K. Schmitt and C. Hoffmann 7 Commercial Sensor Systems .

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