By Alexander Johan Nederbragt
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Uncovering the genetic pathways involved in endomesodermal patterning in spiralians remains a subject for future study. Ancestral role of twist genes Our data on a twist ortholog in Patella demonstrate that twist genes are not only involved in mesoderm formation in deuterostome and ecdysozoan bilaterians, but also in lophotrochozoans. This leads to the following conclusions on the ancestral role of twist genes. Genes of the twist family must have been present before the origin of the triploblasts, as orthologs of these genes have been found in deuterostomes, ecdysozoans (see introduction), lophotrochozoans (Soto et al.
Expression was seen inside the embryo in the region below the apical tuft (fig. 3D). This staining was also found in 16 hours old trochophore larvae (fig. 3E, F), but then it was restricted to the region above the ciliated prototroch. At 24 hrs, a pattern similar to the 16 hrs stage was observed with additional staining in the trunk region (fig. 3G). A clonal restriction map for the Patella trochophore was made by Dictus and Damen (1997) and shows the progeny of early cleavage stage blastomeres at 24-28 hrs of development.
Therefore, we decided to clone a twist ortholog of a lophotrochozoan, the gastropod mollusc Patella vulgata, and to analyse its spatio-temporal expression pattern during early embryonic development. We obtained a Patella vulgata open reading frame whose deduced protein sequence showed great similarity to other twist-like genes. Based on these comparisons and phylogenetic analysis we concluded that this gene is the Patella ortholog of twist and call it Pv-twi. The spatio-temporal expression pattern of Pv-twi during early Patella embryogenesis was analysed.