Chips, Clones, and Living Beyond 100: How Far Will the by Paul J. H. Schoemaker

By Paul J. H. Schoemaker

The key clinical discoveries of the twenty first century will emerge from the biosciences. those discoveries will influence our lives in methods we will in simple terms now start to think. during this publication, of the field's best specialists support us think these affects. Paul and Joyce A. Schoemaker journey the extraordinary box of biosciences because it stands this day, and preview the instructions and techniques which are probably to emerge within the coming years. they give a transparent, non-technical evaluate of the most important present advancements which are more likely to have huge, immense effect, and deal with concerns starting from elevated human durability to worldwide warming, bio-warfare to personalised medication. alongside the best way, they remove darkness from all of the fascinating applied sciences and hot-button concerns linked to modern biotechnology - together with stem cells, cloning, probiotics, DNA microarrays, proteomics, gene treatment, and a complete lot extra. The Schoemakers determine rising fiscal, political, and technical drivers and stumbling blocks which are more likely to powerfully effect the way in which the biosciences growth. Then, drawing on Paul Schoemaker's unsurpassed adventure supporting worldwide businesses organize for the long run, the authors comic strip a number of long term situations for the biosciences - and display how they are going to influence your wellbeing and fitness, relatives, occupation, society, even the Earth itself.

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In addition to PCR, highly automated sequencing machines were developed to rapidly read the order of nucleotides in segments from the genome. Powerful computer programs entailing hundreds of computers could arrange these discrete segments and assemble them into the final genome sequence. Com 2 • A short history of biomedicine 33 After the first draft of the human genome was announced with much fanfare in 2000, a so-called “finished version” became available in 2004. 9% accurate. The number of actual protein-coding genes has been revised downward from earlier estimates to around 25,000.

These proteins could not be produced in bacteria because bacteria lack the machinery to handle the additional structures. To solve this problem many valuable human proteins are commercially produced in yeast and mammalian cells, as well as other cell types. 4 billion nucleotides (containing base pairs of A’s, T’s, C’s, and G’s) that make up DNA in the human genome. The term genome refers to the entire complement of genetic information located in the nucleus of every cell in a given species; genomics is the study of the genome.

3 In More Than Human: Embracing the Promise of Biological Enhancement (New York: Random House, 2005), Ramez Naam explains why science is on the verge of extending life, including creating designer babies, and that we should embrace this progress ethically as well as otherwise; see also William Hanson, The Edge of Medicine (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008). Com 1 • Living well beyond 100 19 Free radicals are chemical compounds inside cells that are electrically charged. They are routine byproducts of metabolism, mostly from burning fuel using oxygen.

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