By William C. Anderson P.E., DEE (auth.), William C. Anderson P.E., DEE (eds.)
This monograph on chemical therapy is considered one of a sequence of 8 on leading edge website and waste remediation applied sciences which are the fruits of a multi association attempt related to greater than a hundred specialists over a yr interval. It offers the skilled, practising specialist counsel at the software of cutting edge tactics thought of prepared for full-scale software. different monographs during this sequence deal with bioremediation, soil washing/soil flushing, solvent chemical extraction, stabilization/ solidifica tion, thermal desorption, thermal destruction, and vacuum vapor extraction. 7. 7 Chemical therapy The time period chemical therapy, as utilized in this monograph, refers back to the use of reagents to break or chemically regulate objective contaminants through ability except pyrolysis or combustion. The monograph addresses procedures that chemically deal with infected soils, groundwaters, floor waters, and, to a constrained volume, centred contaminants. Chemical remedy is a method of changing damaging components into much less environmentally ob jectionable kinds with a purpose to meet remedy targets. This monograph addresses substitution, oxidation, and chemical precipi tation strategies. It addresses techniques inside those sessions which are suffi ciently complicated for full-scale program. there are various rising applied sciences inside of those periods which are within the examine or an early devel opment degree, now not but prepared for full-scale software, that seem to be very promising technologically. Six such applied sciences are in brief addressed in Appendix A.
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Some form of tube cleaning should be incorporated in all such processes. 3 Precipitation Processes Precipitation reactions are limited to the treatment of inorganic materials in aqueous media. They are routinely used in the treatment of wastewaters, but their application in site remediation is less common. One potential limitation lies in the collection and handling of precipitates. Their handling must be addressed in a treatability study conducted before the treatment method is selected. 5 Technology Prognosis Under proper conditions, discussed in this monograph, chemical treatment can be a useful treatment technology.
Alternative techniques, including selective sorption/desorption and differential precipitation, have focused primarily on opportunities for recovery of metals and sludge beneficiation and extraction (Patterson 1988). Clifford, Subramanian, and Sorg (1986) cite the following advantages of precipitation/coprecipitation contaminant removal processes: • low cost for high volume; • often improved by high ionic strength; and • reliable and well-suited for osmotic control. Limitations include the following: • stoichiometric chemical addition requirements; • high water content sludge must be disposed; • part per billion effluent contaminant levels may require twostage precipitation; • processing is not readily applied to small, intermittent flows; and • coprecipitation efficiency depends on initial contaminant concentration and surface area of the primary floc.
11 Process Identification and Description substitution is not necessary in order to convert the PCB into a unregulated form. The treated soil leaving the KPEG process was saturated with PEG after this demonstration. It was described by one observer as similar to quicksand. 3. 2 GRC Process The GRC Process (also called the alkaline polyethylene glycol (APEG) Plus Process) was developed by the Galson Remediation Company (Peterson 1986). It uses KPEG mixed with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the reagent.