Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 3 by David Chiszar, Charles W. Radcliffe, Kent M. Scudder, David

By David Chiszar, Charles W. Radcliffe, Kent M. Scudder, David Duvall (auth.), Dietland Müller-Schwarze, Robert M. Silverstein (eds.)

The first quantity during this sequence seemed in 1977, the second one in 1980. From those volumes and the current one, a little research tendencies in chemical conversation might be perceived. within the 1977 quantity, reports on thirteen animal taxa have been suggested. within the current quantity, the quantity is 25. This taxonomie diversi­ fication of analysis because the first quantity of this sequence demon­ strates the wide range of ecological adaptions, even supposing no new normal ideas of chemical verbal exchange have ernerged. additional­ extra, divergences in chemical comrnunication less than the species point became extra obvious. quite often, extra refined observa­ tions and strategies have resulted in higher understanding of the com­ plexities in chemical verbal exchange. As such information has additionally constructed within the box of insect chemical conversation, there was a corresponding bring up within the identity of the chemicals concerned. in spite of the fact that, within the vertebrates, no such correlation exists; within the current quantity, conclusive chemical identifications of semiochemicals are striking via their paucity.

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In our opinion, the evolutionary jump from a simple sweattype, skin gland to a mammary gland is a very big one. Indeed, too big, without certain qualifications. Why, for example, would neonates have licked the ventrum in the first place? Did certain sweat glands simply start dripping milk? Did a mammal-like brood patch just appear from sweat glands? We think not. Rather, young animals may first have licked their mother's ventrum so that they simply might find or identify it or her. Perhaps lingual and mouthing actions facilitated chemical signal reception via an oral route to the vomeronasal organ.

L. , Texas Tech Press, Lubbock. ~N~o~t~e~a~d~d~e~d~l~·n~~p~r~o~o~f. SNAKE TONGUE FLICKING BEHAVIOR: CLUES TO VO~ffiRONASAL SYSTEM FUNCTIONS Mimi Halpern and John L. Y. 11203 For the past ten years we have been studying the function of the garter snake vomeronasal system. The snake vomeronasal organ is remarkably large and contains more sensory neurons than the snake's main olfactory apparatus. It appears to detect sexual scents, conspecific scents, and prey odors. These odors are critically important in mating, aggregation,prey trailing, prey attack and prey ingestion (Burghardt & Pruitt, 1975; Halpern & Frumin, 1979; Heller & Halpern, 1983; Kubie & Halpern, 1979; Kubie, Vagvolgyi & Halpern, 1978; Wilde, 1938).

Next, a coevolution of sorts, involving the mother's ventrum on the one hand and the neonates lingual mouthing actions of the "aggregation factor" on the other may have ensued. This "coevolution" might have resulted in a gradual increase in the complexity of the ventrum skin glands, such that some fraction of the total mixture secreted eventually derived some nutritive value for young. At the same time, repeated licking actions by young of the mother's ventrum might have led to the derivation of a more muscular, flexible and sensitive oral opening in the young (such as lips), something the fossil record tells us that some cynodonts probably possessed.

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