Chemical and Functional Properties of Food Saccharides by Piotr Tomasik

By Piotr Tomasik

This fourth quantity within the Chemical and useful houses of nutrients parts sequence makes a speciality of saccharides as foodstuff components. Written through a world team of specialists, it presents an updated evaluate of a large spectrum of matters, targeting the present learn and literature at the homes of compounds, their mechanisms of motion, and results at the caliber of meals. It additionally explores a few non-nutritional functions of saccharides, together with biodegradable fabrics and polysaccharide waste as a resource of strength. This detailed reference will function a important source and consultant for researchers, pros, and graduate scholars.

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Up to six hydroxyl groups in sorbitol can be esterified (interesterification or transesterification). Trehalose, raffinose, and stachyose are nonreducing saccharides with 2, 3, or 4 sugar units and consist of 8, 11, or 14 available OH groups for esterification, respectively. They can be esterified © 2004 by CRC Press LLC with FAME catalyzed by Na metal to produce highly substituted polyesters at lower temperatures because they are nonreducing sugars. Glycosylation converts the reducing C-1 anomeric center to nonreducing, the alkyl glycosides become substrates for transesterification with FAME, and the remaining hydroxyl groups can be esterified as described for sucrose polyester to produce alkyl glycoside fatty acid polyesters.

36. L. , Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994, p. 149. 37. , Applications of sucrose fatty acid esters as food emulsifiers, in Industrial Aapplications of Surfactants IV, Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 1999, p. 73. 38. , Emulsification properties of polyesters and sucrose ester blends I. Carbohydrate fatty acid polyesters, J. Am. Oil Chem. , 69, 9, 1992. 1,2 The composition of sugar beets and sugar cane varies widely, depending on the genetic strain, agronomic factors, soil and weather conditions during growth, plant diseases, and treatment between harvesting and slicing.

The solubility is lower at low salt concentration and rises as the salt concentration increases. Precipitation of saccharides in the form of complexes after admixture of salts, for instance, cupric acetate, is an important method of purifying sugars. The stability of the complexes depends on the ionic radius of the ions. The more stable complexes are formed with Na+, Ca2+, and La3+ cations (ionic radius 10 to11 Å). Smaller cations such as Li+, Mg2+, and Y3+ produce weak complexes. The aldonic and alduronic acids, and also a number of α-hydroxy acids, form much stronger complexes with cations than do neutral sugars.

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