Biscuit Manufacture: fundamentals of in-line production by Peter R. Whiteley (auth.)

By Peter R. Whiteley (auth.)

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The fat content is liable to turn rancid during storage, unless stabilised during treatment. Oats are available as meal in three or four grades, and also as rolled oats in a pre-cooked form. They can be used in biscuit production to bring about interesting changes in flavours and textures. Maize: Maize, also known as Indian corn, grows in warm, temperate, and sub-tropical climates. It has a high starch content, the protein content is not gluten forming. Its main use in biscuit making is in the form of cornflour, which is milled from the endosperm of maize and is very nearly pure starch.

Both are very stable fats with good keeping qualities. It is also possible to separate from palm kernel oil speciality fats resembling cocoa butter in melting point and texture, but which are not so expensive. Groundnut oil The groundnut (also known as peanut, monkey nut, and arachis) is a seed grown in a pod underground. The plant orginates in South America, but is widely grown in tropical, sub-tropical, and Mediterranean-type climates. Refined groundnut oil is liquid at normal temperatures, but at lower temperatures produces a crystalline deposit.

Although white sugars influence size, bite, texture, and sweetness, they do not alter the flavour of the biscuits. The lower grade sugars and syrups, and the raw sugars, are very important, as they influence flavour considerably. It must be borne in mind, however, that the dark colour of the sugar can be detrimental to plain biscuits; on the other hand it can contribute to the colour of some biscuits. TYPES OF SUGARS FOR OTHER PURPOSES The main use of sugar except for baking is in the preparation of filling creams and icings.

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