By Ron G. Manley (auth.), Joseph F. Bunnett, Marian Mikołajczyk (eds.)
More than ten million `poison gasoline' shells, mortar bombs, etc., lie hidden in Europe, a lot of them relics from global battle I. a few have been fired and didn't detonate, others have been deserted in outdated ammunition dumps. so much preserve their load of chemical battle (CW) brokers. they're grew to become up day-by-day during farming and development. Many ecu international locations have everlasting departments all in favour of their assortment and destruction.
previous munitions, whilst came across, are typically seriously corroded and hard to spot. Is it a CW munition? Or an explosive? If CW, what agent does it include? as soon as pointed out, one has to choose a destruction technique. the various tools which have been proposed are under excellent, and are usually complex by way of the presence of extraneous chemical substances, both combined with the CW brokers in the course of manufacture or shaped over a long time within the flooring.
Of specific curiosity are the insiders' reviews at the German CW programmes of either global Wars, and the present prestige of Russian chemical armaments.
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Additional resources for Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems in the Destruction of Old Arsenical and ‘Mustard’ Munitions
Only about 30 were assessed as suitable for field use, and 12 were adopted and used intensively. Out of these 12,6 finally gave satisfactory results. F. Bunnell and M. ), Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems in the Destruction of Old Arsenical and 'Mustard' Munitions, 17-32. © 1998 Kluwer Academic Publishers. 18 It is interesting to note that, between the two wars, 1400 products were tested in France and 2 were finally selected. The total number of substances examined by the world's chemists for possible use as attack agents, since 1915, which is 81 years ago, has been estimated at 12,000.
In particular. the "direct process" for synthesis of 'mustard' formed polysulfide by-products. If they were not separated in the course of fabrication. such polymer sediments in filled munitions become a problem during longterm storage. Also. problems may arise in the dismantling process owing to residues that obstinately stick to the walls of shells being emptied. TABLE 1. ,s CI * World War 1 product. A further complication is that substances were sometimes intentionally added to the original 'mustard' products in order to reduce the freezing point for winter use or to improve persistency after CW agent dispersal on the ground and on surfaces of military equipment.
This device, which is based on the use of photon-induced neutron spectroscopy (PINS), makes it possible to identify the presence or absence of the elements phosphorus, sulphur, chlorine, fluorine and arsenic within the munition. Clearly this information not only helps to identify the presence of a chemical fill, but in many circumstances also means it is possible to identify the fill. The development of more and improved techniques of non-destructive analysis will be a major factor in the development of safer techniques for the recovery and disposal of these old munitions.