By Robert Louis Stevenson
An impossible to resist invitation to reject the paintings ethic and revel in life's easy pleasures (such as giggling, ingesting and mendacity within the open air), Robert Louis Stevenson's witty and seminal essay at the joys of idleness is followed the following through his writings on, between different issues, growing older, traveling disagreeable locations and the overpowering event of falling in love. all through background, a few books have replaced the realm. they've got reworked the best way we see ourselves - and every different. they've got encouraged debate, dissent, warfare and revolution. they've got enlightened, outraged, provoked and comforted. they've got enriched lives - and destroyed them. Now Penguin brings you the works of the nice thinkers, pioneers, radicals and visionaries whose rules shook civilization and helped make us who we're.
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P. 253) In this perspective, pronouns -·like the other indicators but unlike the other linguistic signs referring to a lexical reality- are presented as "empty signs," whicJ] become "full" as soon as the speaker assumes them in an instance of discourse. Their scope is to enact "the conversion oflanguage into discourse" and to permit the passage from langue to parole. In an essay published a year after Benveniste's study, Jakobson, taking up the French linguist's definition in part, classified pronouns among the "shifters"; that is, among those special grmnmatical units that are eontnined in every code and that cannot be defined outside of a relation to the message.
The voice, the animal phone, is indeed presupposed by the shifters, but as that which must neccssm·ily be removed in order for meaningful discourse to take place. 11te taking place of language between the removal of the voice and the event of meaning is the other vbice whose ontological (/;mension we saw emerging in medieval thought and that, in the metaphysical traditirm, constitutes the original)' articulation (the artllron) ofhwnan language. But inasmuch as this Voice (which we now capitalize to distinguish it from the voice as mere sound) enjoys the status of a no-longer (voice) and of a not-yet (meaning), it necessarily constitutes a negative dimen-sion.
Benveniste 2, p. 83) An excellent analysis, to which we. might only add, in order to libei·ate it from the traces of a psychological vocabulary, that precisely inasmuch as it is generated in the act of utterance (that is, in a Voice and not simply in a voice), the present-as the analysis of the instant throughout the history of philosophy from Aristotle to Hegel demonstrates-is necessarily also marked ~y negativity. The centrality of the relation between being and presence in the history of Western philosophy is grounded in the fact that temporality and being have a common source in the "incessant present" of the instance of discourse.