By Carl D. Regillo MD
Studies the fundamental anatomy of the retina and diagnostic ways to retinal affliction. contains wide examinations of issues of the retina and vitreous, together with illness, irritation, hereditary dystrophies, abnormalities and trauma. Discusses laser treatment and vitreoretinal surgical procedure. final significant revision 2008-2009.
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Additional resources for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 12: Retina and Vitreous
Staining refers to a pattern of hYFerfluorescence where the fluorescence gradually in creases in intensity through transit views and pe rsists in late views, but its borders rem ain flXed throughout the angiogram. Staining results from fluorescein entry into a solid tissue or similar material th at retains the fluorescein , such as a scar, drusen, optic nerve tissue, or sclera (see Fig 2- I B). Pooling refers to the accu mulation of fluorescein in a fluid-fill ed space in the retina or choroid.
When the RPE phagocytoses photoreceptor outer segments, which consist of retinoids, fatty acids, and proteins, li pofuscin accumulates as an oxidative by-product within the RPE cells. The pigment within li pofUScin that causes autofluorescence is A2E, named for its derivation from 2 molecules CHAPTER 2: Diagnostic Approach to Retinal Di sease. 31 of vitamin A aldehyde and 1 molecule of ethanolamine. A loss of RPE cells has been shown to be accompanied by substantial loss of autofl uorescent content.
Time-domain OCT produces retinal thickness maps from 6 x 6-mm radial scans centered on the fovea, with interpolation between the scan lines, to produce a map of the macula. In contrast, Fourier-domain OCT can image the entire macula due to increased scanning speed and improved accuracy of thick ness and volume measurements; it also offers the capability of improving registration, so imaging the same area from visit to visit is now possible. Hee MR, Puliafito CA, Wong C, et al. Optical coherence tomography of macular holes.